Breastfeeding Knowledge and Practices of Working Mothers in the Informal Economy in New Delhi: A Formative Study to Explore New Intervention Pathways towards Improved Maternal and Child Health Outcomes
Nutrition and Health SystemsBreastfeeding
The conditions and nature of informal employment shape maternal and child health outcomes.
Authors call for examining how the gendering of breastfeeding, infant feeding, caregiving, and nurturing align with the social distribution of power, authority, and resources in ways that reinforce gender inequality in political, economic, and social status.
Strengthening Nutrition Interventions in Antenatal Care Services Affects Dietary Intake, Micronutrient Intake, Gestational Weight Gain, and Breastfeeding in Uttar Pradesh, India: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation
Nutrition-intensified antenatal care (ANC), which provides more home visits and counseling on core nutrition messages than traditional ANC programs, increased iron–folic acid and calcium supplement intake. It also increased exclusive breastfeeding, consumption of vitamin A–rich foods and other vegetables and fruits, and gestational weight gain.
A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research on Barriers and Facilitators to Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice in Sub-Saharan African Countries
Monitoring, Evaluation, and LearningBreastfeeding
Maternal employment is the greatest barrier to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) while knowledge of the benefits of EBF is the greatest facilitator. Interventions focusing on these and other maternal-infant factors will optimize EBF and improve maternal-child health outcomes.
Breastfeeding: Not Just Mom’s Job—How USAID Promotes and Protects Breastfeeding
Optimal breastfeeding is one of the most powerful solutions to save the lives of infants and children. Improving breastfeeding extends beyond supporting the woman and child—requiring encouragement and support from skilled counselors, family members, health care providers, employers, policymakers, and others.
USAID Breastfeeding: Providing a Healthy Start for a Healthy Future
This one minute animated video discusses the benefits of breastfeeding for both baby and mother. USAID has worked with partners for more than 40 years to promote breastfeeding in programs and policies, helping families chart productive and prosperous futures for their children, and supporting communities to thrive.
Feeding Young Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Ensuring Their Future Growth and Development
Healthy complementary feeding after 6 months of age requires foods from four food groups daily. In addition to breastfeeding, babies need 2–3 meals and one snack per day. Sugary snacks and formula are unhealthy options for young children.
Countries need to invest in policies and programs that support women’s breastfeeding decisions. Promoting lactation-friendly employment conditions, and ensuring the availability of health services that support women and their families in breastfeeding, are particularly important.
2021 World Health Day: Improve Global Breastfeeding Practices
All actors should take a public health approach to strengthen the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and breastfeeding counseling, including during emergencies; implement maternal social protection that includes paid leave and workplace support in the formal and informal sectors; advocate for greater access to skilled breastfeeding counseling; and reinforce support for breastfeeding dyads by dev
Papers describe global breastfeeding trends, short- and long-term health consequences for mother and child, determinants of breastfeeding, the impact of investment in breastfeeding, the effectiveness of promotion interventions, and the need for coordinated global action to address breast milk substitutes.
In addition to women’s time, energy, capacity, and skill, breastfeeding requires family, health facility, community, employer, and policy support. Sociocultural factors, health care practices and policies, paid leave policies and legislation, a lack of skilled support, and aggressive marketing of breast milk substitutes all impact likelihood of breastfeeding.
Celebrating 40 years of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes
Articles focus on the history of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; the need to address unethical marketing and further implement and enforce the Code; and additional steps to take to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.
First-Food Systems Transformations and the Ultra-Processing of Infant and Young Child Diets: The Determinants, Dynamics, and Consequences of the Global Rise in Commercial Milk Formula Consumption
Food SystemsBreastfeedingInfant and Young Child Nutrition (IYCN)
Increasing formula sales are linked to rising incomes, urbanization, social norms, women's work, medicalization, and the globalization of the industry. Companies use diverse and aggressive marketing techniques to grow their markets, including product diversification, digital marketing, and health professional co-optation.
Attitudes and Perceptions about Breastfeeding Among Female and Male Informal Workers in India and South Africa
Most women surveyed understood the benefits of breastfeeding and initiated breastfeeding, but household responsibilities and financial obligations frequently forced an early return to work. This led to changes in infant feeding practices, including adding breast milk substitutes.
Revisiting Humanitarian Action Early: Planting the Seeds for a New Generation
Early Childhood DevelopmentBreastfeedingCOVID-19Emergency Nutrition
Analysis of Humanitarian and Refugee Response Plans indicates Nurturing Care Framework (NCF) recommendations are often not included. Advocates recommend increasing investments for pregnant women and their children in humanitarian contexts, building the frontline workforce and health services to support safe and healthy births, and applying the NCF in all phases of emergencies.
India: Family Participatory Care: A Gateway to Nurturing Small and Sick Newborns
Early Childhood DevelopmentBreastfeedingWater, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)
Based on research showing that providing parents continuous access to their babies after delivery improved breastfeeding before discharge, the Indian National Health Mission developed an educational series to teach handwashing skills and infection prevention, kangaroo and developmentally supportive care, preparation for discharge, and care at home.
Early Childhood DevelopmentBreastfeedingCOVID-19Economic Growth
The Human Capital Index (HCI) suggests that, on average, a child born in sub-Saharan Africa is likely to reach only 40 percent of their full earnings potential. Because undernutrition and child mortality rates contribute significantly to the HCI, breastfeeding is a key factor in human capital development. This article is behind a paywall.
Breastfeeding, Physical Growth, and Cognitive Development
Early Childhood DevelopmentBreastfeeding
Complying with the World Health Organization recommendation to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months, then practice complementary feeding until 2 years of age, is associated with improved child development and height-for-age z-score and a 67 percent decrease in the odds of stunting. This article is behind a paywall.
Achieving Health Equity: Providing Skilled Breastfeeding Support Universally
Global leaders discuss why investment in skilled breastfeeding support is essential to achieving equitable health outcomes. This is a webinar available in Arabic, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.