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Measures egalitarian beliefs about male and female gender norms with two types of items:

  • beliefs in and promotion of equity for girls and women
  • beliefs in maintaining the rights and privileges of men.

Scoring and Interpretation

Respondents are asked if they agree or disagree with each item of two sub-scales. Responses are coded on a 5-point Likert Scale. The mean of individual items can be expressed as a continuum from traditional beliefs to egalitarian beliefs. Higher mean scores indicate more gender-equitable attitudes.


Waszak, C, JL Severy, L Kafafi, and I Badawi. 2000. “Fertility Behavior and Psychological Stress: the Mediating Influence of Gender Norm Beliefs Among Egyptian Women.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 25:197–208.

Contexts and Applications to Child Nutrition


Matare, Cynthia R., Mduduzi NN Mbuya, Katherine L. Dickin, Mark A. Constas, Gretel Pelto, Bernard Chasekwa, Jean H. Humphrey, et al. 2021. "Maternal Capabilities Are Associated with Child Caregiving Behaviors among Women in Rural Zimbabwe." The Journal of Nutrition. 151(3): 685-694.

Tome, Joice, Mduduzi NN Mbuya, Rachel R. Makasi, Robert Ntozini, Andrew J. Prendergast, Katherine L. Dickin, Gretel H. Pelto et al. 2021."Maternal Caregiving Capabilities Are Associated with Child Linear Growth in Rural Zimbabwe." Maternal & Child Nutrition 17 (2): e13122.


Reduced and adapted questions through expert input and formative research:

  • In a household, the man should make the important decisions.
  • If the woman works outside home, her husband or partner should help her with the daily housework.
  • A husband should not let his wife work (employment) outside home, even if she would like to do it.
  • A woman has the right to express her opinion if she does not agree with what the husband or partner says.
  • A woman must accept that her husband or partner beats her in order to keep the family together.
  • It is better to send a son to school than a daughter.

Formative Research 


Psychometric Characteristics


Content Not Available
Criterion Not Available
Construct Adequate


Internal consistency Adequate
Test-retest reliability Not Available
Inter-rater reliability Not Available