January 2023

IconCapacity Strengthening

Research Articles

International Humanitarian Organizations’ Perspectives on Localization Efforts

Frennesson, Lina, Joakim Kembro, Harwin de Vries, et al. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, December 2022
  • Capacity Strengthening
This critical research addresses internal barriers to localization and identifies how perceptions of barriers or drivers differ depending on roles and institutional affiliations. The ways that current operational expectations can evolve to support localization, how localization is currently implemented, and how organizations address localization challenges are also assessed.

The Multiple Dimensions of Participation: Key Determinants of Nutrition Intervention Outcomes

Marquis, Grace S., Stephanie L. Martin, Anna Lartey. Current Developments in Nutrition, December 2022
  • Capacity Strengthening
Papers in this series discuss how to define and measure participation, how to explore approaches to encourage indirect and direct participation, and how participation at different time points and by different stakeholders can validate, support, and increase the effectiveness of interventions.

Reports and Tools

Comparing Delivery Channels to Promote Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Bangladesh

International Food Policy Research Institute, December 2022
  • Capacity Strengthening
Female nutrition workers and male agricultural extension workers experienced an increase in nutrition-related knowledge, household and individual diet quality, and women’s empowerment. Training men to deliver nutrition messages could help address shortages of female extension workers and provide greater opportunities to scale and promote nutrition-sensitive agriculture.

IconEarly Childhood Development

Reports and Tools

Improving Nutrition among Children with Feeding Difficulties and Disabilities: Call to Action for Policymakers

USAID Advancing Nutrition, November 2022
  • Early Childhood Development
Improving competencies among health professionals, ensuring inclusion in social protection and food supplementation program eligibility criteria, revising guidelines and care protocols, and ensuring that disability-inclusive nutrition programs are included in government- and donor-funded guidance documents are critical to improving nutrition among children with feeding difficulties and disabilities. Additional recommendations include disaggregating data by disability in routine information systems, including functioning assessments in national surveys, and monitoring children’s development through their access to health services.

Nurturing Care and Men's Engagement: Thematic Brief

World Health Organization, October 2022
  • Early Childhood Development
The engagement of men is associated with higher levels of antenatal, childbirth, and postnatal care, better infant and mother nutrition, higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding, and a reduction of postpartum depression and violence against women and children. Men’s interactions with their young children contribute to children’s cognitive, social, and emotional development; school readiness; educational achievement; and better mental health. Sharing childcare responsibilities can improve men’s family relationships, happiness, and physical and mental health.

Role of Pediatricians, Pediatric Associations, and Academic Departments in Ensuring Optimal Early Childhood Development Globally: Position Paper of the International Pediatric Association

Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, October/November 2022
  • Early Childhood Development
The International Pediatric Association calls for prioritizing early childhood development in routine pediatric care, identifies challenges to doing so, and proposes strategies and resources to overcome them. This paper is behind a paywall.

Events

Supporting Children with Feeding Difficulties and Disabilities in Nutrition Programs: Tools for Action Webinar

USAID Advancing Nutrition, November 2022
  • Early Childhood Development
The Feeding and Disability Resource Bank is a collection of resources that addresses feeding difficulties and encourages disability inclusion in nutrition programs. This is a webinar with simultaneous interpretation in American Sign Language, French, and Spanish.

IconFood Systems

Research Articles

Air Pollutant Emissions from Global Food Systems are Responsible for Environmental Impacts, Crop Losses, and Mortality

Crippa, M., E. Solazzo, D. Guizzardi, et al. Nature Food, November 2022
  • Food Systems
Between 10 and 90 percent of country-level air pollutant emissions come from food production, processing, packaging, transport, retailing, consumption, and disposal. Food system emissions are responsible for approximately 22 percent of global mortality due to poor air quality and 1.4 percent of global crop production losses. This article is behind a paywall.

Concentration and Crises: Exploring the Deep Roots of Vulnerability in the Global Industrial Food System

Clapp, Jennifer. The Journal of Peasant Studies, October 2022
  • Food Systems
The global food system relies on a small number of staple grains produced by a small number of countries and traded by a small number of firms in highly financialized commodity markets prone to volatility. This paper explores these dynamics as they relate to worldwide food crises and food systems transformation.

Industry Self-Regulation of Food Fortification Compliance: Piloting the Micronutrient Fortification Index in Nigeria

Durotoye, Tobi, Ike Ilegbune, Dominic Schofield, et al. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, November 2022
  • Food Systems
The Micronutrient Fortification Index ranks Nigerian products based on the effectiveness and efficiency of a company’s systems and levels of fortification. Digitizing quality assurance and business processes increases accountability and harnesses the competitive nature of businesses to drive food fortification performance. This article is behind a paywall.

Market Access, Household Dietary Diversity, and Food Security: Evidence from Eastern Africa

Usman, Muhammed A., Mekbib G. Haile. Food Policy, November 2022
  • Food Systems
Households located closer to market centers have greater expenditures, consume more diverse diets, and have greater food security than those located farther away. Investing in accessible market development and rural infrastructure to link smallholder farmers to markets is critical to improving household dietary diversity and food security. This article is behind a paywall.

Simple Solutions for Complex Problems? What is Missing in Agriculture for Nutrition Interventions

Hambloch, Caroline, Kai Mausch, Costanza Conti, et al. Food Security, November 2022
  • Food Systems
There is insufficient evidence on the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of nutrition-sensitive value chains and crop biofortification on nutritional outcomes. New evaluation frameworks and approaches that acknowledge the social, political, economic, and environmental factors and drivers of malnutrition and poverty are important.

Using Household Consumption Data to Flag Low Nutrient Access

Mathiassen, Astrid, Margarita Lovon, Barbara Baille, et al. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, October 2022
  • Food Systems
Practitioners can use consumption frequency based on household data collected in emergency assessments and through monitoring systems as a proxy for approximating access to vitamin A and iron in humanitarian contexts. This article is behind a paywall.

Reports and Tools

Can a Gender-Sensitive Integrated Poultry Value Chain and Nutrition Intervention Among the Rural Poor Increase Women’s Empowerment in Burkina Faso?

International Food Policy Research Institute, October 2022
  • Food Systems
This study finds that a gender- and nutrition-sensitive poultry production intervention in Burkina Faso did not impact women’s empowerment or gender parity. This may be due to the lack of a productive asset transfer, which has previously been shown to be essential but not sufficient for women’s empowerment in agricultural development programs.

December Is Food Loss and Waste Month on Agrilinks

Agrilinks, December 2022
  • Food Systems
Posts in this series focus on how food loss and waste links to climate, food safety, nutrition, and food security. Contributors discuss the power of technology to improve cold chain and post-harvest handling, advocate for private sector and youth engagement, and provide actionable recommendations for the development community.

Food Inflation and Child Undernutrition in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

International Food Policy Research Institute, November 2022
  • Food Systems
Food inflation increases the risk of wasting and severe wasting in infants and older children, especially male children and those from poor and rural households. Food inflation during pregnancy and in the first year after birth increases the risk of stunting in children aged two to five years. Interventions to prevent food inflation and mitigate its impacts are critical.

In Pursuit of More Fruitful Food Systems

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, October 2022
  • Food Systems
An integrated methodology that includes climate, crop, economic, and life cycle assessment models could more accurately project future yields; determine where fruit and vegetable crops may become more profitable or environmentally advantageous to produce; and assess climate change impacts on crops, including the impact on yield, irrigation demand, and the environmental footprint.

Innovating for Safer Foods—EatSafe in Nigeria's Approach to Designing Consumer Interventions in Traditional Markets

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, November 2022
  • Food Systems
This paper describes how the Evidence and Action Towards Safe, Nutritious Food (EatSafe) program in Nigeria identified and designed innovative interventions to increase consumer demand for safe foods in traditional market settings.

Public Consultation on the Draft Guideline: Fiscal Policies to Promote Healthy Diets

World Health Organization, December 2022
  • Food Systems
The World Health Organization is calling for comments on its draft guideline on fiscal policies to promote healthy diets, which will provide countries with evidence-informed recommendations on the taxation of foods and sugar-sweetened beverages and on a subset of food subsidies.

La Revolution des Algues: A Seaweed Revolution for a New Future in Sustainable Food Systems

World Fish Center, October 2022
  • Food Systems
A new book suggests seaweed could play a significant role in increasing food and nutrition security; mitigating climate change and biodiversity loss; and increasing sustainable job creation, economic growth, and gender equality.

The State of Food and Agriculture 2022

Food and Agriculture Organization, November 2022
  • Food Systems
The 2022 report explores drivers of agricultural automation and analyzes the business case for adopting digital automation technologies in different agricultural production systems. It identifies barriers to preventing technology adoption and calls for policies to ensure that disadvantaged groups benefit from automation and that automation contributes to sustainable and resilient agri-food systems. The report is available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.

Tomorrow's Agri-Food System: The Connections Between Trade, Food Security, and Nutrition for a Sustainable Diet

International Food Policy Research Institute, December 2022
  • Food Systems
The article identifies interactions, highlights synergies, and seeks to limit tradeoffs between trade, climate change, and nutrition to improve understanding of how food systems can be transformed to ensure healthy, affordable, and sustainable diets for all. This chapter is behind a paywall.

Events

What’s Next After the “Implementation” COP? Catalyzing Action at the Intersection of Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Systems

Agrilinks, December 2022
  • Food Systems
Speakers discuss the food security, nutrition, and water issues highlighted at the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference; share examples of how USAID and partners are driving inclusive climate action in agriculture and food systems; and discuss how to support countries that are implementing climate commitments. This webinar includes a slide deck.

IconKnowledge Management

Reports and Tools

2022 Global Nutrition Report

Global Nutrition Report, December 2022
  • Knowledge Management
The 2022 report introduces the nutrition accountability framework; discusses commitments made for the 2021 Nutrition Year of Action; and outlines priorities for governments, civil society organizations, the private sector, donors, and international organizations.

Getting to 2030: Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Technical Roadmap

USAID, November 2022
  • Knowledge Management
This roadmap supports a coordinated, strategic approach to strengthening essential services and health systems for women and children and informs the development, measurement, and adjustment of country level strategic plans.

Nutrition in the Health Sector: Urgent Need to Accelerate Action and Accountability

Global Nutrition Report, December 2022
  • Knowledge Management
New programmatic and financial commitments focus on the importance of strengthening national- and local-level nutrition financing, coordination, human resources, policies, and surveillance systems. Countries and other actors are also investing in community health workers, the fortification of staples with essential vitamins and minerals, and the strengthening of nutrition service delivery in primary health care.

USAID Advancing Nutrition @ 22nd International Congress of Nutrition

USAID Advancing Nutrition, December 2022
  • Knowledge Management
Presentations focus on tools to improve the quantity of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling, small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement programs, food taboos and preferences among women, the knowledge and skills needed to counsel on IYCF during and after illness, nutritional care for children with feeding difficulties and disabilities, and using child growth monitoring and promotion data for decision-making, among other topics. Accompanying resources include posters and slide decks.

USAID Advancing Nutrition Presents at the 2022 International Social and Behavior Change Communication (SBCC) Summit

USAID Advancing Nutrition, December 2022
  • Knowledge Management
Summit topics include generating demand for healthy diets, supporting local leadership skills development for social and behavior change (SBC), and prioritizing behaviors for effective multi-sectoral nutrition SBC. Accompanying resources include posters and slide decks.

IconMonitoring, Evaluation, and Learning

Research Articles

Critical Review of Indicators, Metrics, Methods, and Tools for Monitoring and Evaluation of Biofortification Programs at Scale

Rodas-Moya, Santiago, Francesca M. Giudici, Bho Mudyahoto, et al. Frontiers in Nutrition, October 2022
  • Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning
The authors recommend using 17 high-level indicators to track critical results along the crop biofortification implementation pathway. They also call for more research to test, revise, and develop mechanisms to harmonize the monitoring and evaluation framework across programs, institutions, and countries.

Drops of Capillary Blood Are Not Appropriate for Hemoglobin Measurement with Point-of-Care Devices: A Comparative Study Using Drop Capillary, Pooled Capillary, and Venous Blood Samples

De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa, Ignacio Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda, et al. Nutrients, December 2022
  • Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning
Using drops of capillary blood produces too much random variation to approximate true hemoglobin values. Practitioners should not use this method to diagnose anemia in individuals and populations.

Seasonal Variation in the Association between Household Food Insecurity and Child Undernutrition in Bangladesh: Mediating Role of Child Dietary Diversity

Hasan, Md. Mehedi, Abdul Kader, Chowdhury Abdullah Al Asif, et al. Maternal & Child Nutrition, December 2022
  • Food Systems
  • Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning
Children in food-insecure households are more likely to have poor nutrition and to be stunted, wasted, and underweight than those in food-secure households. Dietary diversity mediates the relationship between food insecurity and undernutrition but its impact varies seasonally. Seasonality and dietary diversity should be considered when designing population-level food-based interventions.

Reports and Tools

A Review of Measures and Indicators for Assessing the Relationship between Women’s Empowerment and Nutrition

CGIAR, October 2022
  • Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning
This paper identifies how relationships between women’s empowerment and nutrition have historically been assessed and what components of women’s empowerment may be most useful in influencing diet and nutrition outcomes among women and children.

IconNutrition and Health Systems

Research Articles

Determinants of Maternal Diet Quality in Winter in the Kyrgyz Republic

Mukuria-Ashe, Altrena, Silvia Alayon, Tim Williams, et al. Global Health: Science and Practice, December 2022
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
Dietary diversity in the Kyrgyz Republic is strongly associated with the cultural practices of preserving and storing food during the fall. Identifying and promoting positive cultural practices to support greater diet diversity, engaging food systems, and increasing market access to improve maternal diets are critical.

Evaluating the Role of Breastfeeding Peer Supporters’ Intervention on the Inpatient Management of Malnourished Infants Under 6 Months in Kenyan Public Hospitals

Mwangome, Martha, Nicole Feune de Colombi, Sophie Chabeda, et al. International Breastfeeding Journal, November 2022
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
Peer supporters of breastfeeding play an important role in recording and reporting practices and in ensuring that breastfeeding is central to the management of inpatient malnourished infants in Kenya. Implementation tools facilitate their effective application and should accompany guideline formulation.

How COVID-19 Affected Food Systems, Health Service Delivery, and Maternal and Infant Nutrition Practices: Implications for Moving Forward in Kenya

Ahoya, Brenda, Justine A. Kavle, Laura Kiige, et al. Maternal & Child Nutrition, December 2022
  • Food Systems
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
In Kenya, fear of infection and government lockdowns reduces health service uptake, a lack of clear guidance delayed breastfeeding, and increased mother-child separation following delivery among COVID-19-positive women. Unemployment, job loss, increased food prices, and limited social protection measures led pregnant and lactating women to skip meals and reduce the quantity and variety of foods they consumed. Improving maternal and infant nutrition practices requires facility and community health education, psychosocial support, and social protection measures.

Impact Evaluation of a Community Nutrition and Livelihood Program on Child Nutrition in Rural Bangladesh

Kang, Yunhee, Indira Prihartono, Md. Iqbal Hossain, et al. Maternal & Child Nutrition, December 2022
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
Adding an economic development component to the Positive Deviant/Hearth program significantly increases income and dietary diversity among young children and mothers, promotes household food security, and diversifies crop production.

Integrating Women and Girls’ Nutrition Services into Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

Menezes, Rachael, Natasha Lelijveld, Stephanie V. Wrottesley, et al. Nutrients, October 2022
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
Increasing service coverage and improving health outcomes for current and future generations of girls and women will require addressing barriers to service integration in the public health system and gaps in nutrition services, especially for non-pregnant girls, women of reproductive age, and postpartum women.

Lessons Learned From Integrating Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling and Iron-Folic Acid Distribution Into Routine Immunization Services in Ethiopia

Kanagat, Natasha, Adriana Almiñana, Belayneh Dagnew, et al. Global Health: Science and Practice, October 2022
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
Although health workers initially struggle with the responsibilities associated with integrating services, their planning, reporting, and service delivery improves after receiving technical assistance. Integration helps maintain a focus on both programs and complete infant and young child feeding counseling more regularly. Health workers report that it is easier to provide integrated services during facility-based sessions than outreach or mobile services. 

Reports and Tools

How We Can Engage Youth in Food Systems to Improve Diet and Nutrition Outcomes

USAID Advancing Nutrition, December 2022
  • Food Systems
  • Nutrition and Health Systems
Better evidence is urgently needed of effective approaches to engage youth in food systems. Strategies for involving youth in improving nutrition include providing them opportunities to engage at various points in food systems, increasing promotion of and access to healthy food options, encouraging youth to promote healthy nutrition-related behaviors on social media, and involving them in participatory decision-making processes.

IconNutrition in Humanitarian Contexts

Research Articles

Access to Health Services, Food, and Water during an Active Conflict: Evidence from Ethiopia

Abay, Kibrom A., Mehari Hiluf Abay, Guush Berhane, et al. PLOS Global Public Health, November 2022
  • Nutrition in Humanitarian Contexts
The conflict in Ethiopia has decreased access to health services and medicine and the ability to purchase staple foods and soap, especially among poor and rural populations, households with undernourished children, and those living in communities without health facilities. Documented differences in the impact of the conflict could help guide rapid post-conflict responses.

Reports and Tools

Complementary Feeding in Emergencies Programming—Myanmar Case Study

Emergency Nutrition Network, November 2022
  • Nutrition in Humanitarian Contexts
This USAID Advancing Nutrition report provides examples of what is possible at the humanitarian-development nexus when influenced by the performance of multi-sector integrated policies, coordination, funding, and program implementation. Practitioners should continue to assess the potential for integrating these interventions into humanitarian planning efforts. This report is available in English and French.

Complementary Feeding in Emergencies Programming—Yemen Case Study

Emergency Nutrition Network, November 2022
This USAID Advancing Nutrition case study argues that donors and decision makers need a greater understanding of the importance of complementary feeding and that the humanitarian response must be balanced to improve and scale both preventive and curative nutrition efforts. Integration with other sectors, such as food security and livelihoods, may enhance opportunities to engage men.

Micronutrient Resilience and Climate Change: Nutrition for Resilience White Paper #1

Micronutrient Forum, November 2022
  • Nutrition in Humanitarian Contexts
Improving micronutrient resilience requires promoting context-specific, sustainable, and diverse diets through food production; advancing large-scale food fortification; investing in developing climate-resilient and nutritious key crops; and promoting connections to markets and trade. Ensuring access to micronutrient-rich foods must be central to social protection systems and humanitarian activities.

IconSocial and Behavior Change and Gender

Research Articles

COVID-19, Nutrition, and Gender: An Evidence-Informed Approach to Gender-Responsive Policies and Programs

Kalbarczyk, Anna, Noora-Lisa Aberman, Bregje S.M. van Asperen, et al. Social Science & Medicine, November 2022
  • Social and Behavior Change and Gender
Analyzing the impacts of COVID-19 on women and girls points to underlying gender inequities exacerbating health and nutrition outcomes in a crisis. It is essential to identify and advocate for more comprehensive upstream policies and programs to address such inequities.

Development and Validation of a Health and Nutrition Module for the Project‐Level Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro‐WEAI+HN)

Heckert, Jessica, Elena M. Martinez, Greg Seymour, et al. Maternal & Child Nutrition, December 2022
  • Social and Behavior Change and Gender
Adding a health- and nutrition-related agency module to the project-level Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) produced seven distinct indicators. Using these indicators could strengthen the evidence base about how nutrition-sensitive agricultural development programs enhance women's empowerment to improve health and nutrition.

Impacts of a Social and Behavior Change Communication Program Implemented at Scale on Infant and Young Feeding Practices in Nigeria: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Evaluation

Flax, Valerie L., Mariam Fagbemi, Courtney H. Schnefke, et al. PLOS One, December 2022
  • Social and Behavior Change and Gender
Results showed weak impacts of the Alive & Thrive social and behavior change communication intervention on early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and minimum dietary diversity in Nigeria, but spillover of the intervention to the comparison group may have muted the results. Substantial in-group increases in infant and young child feeding practices from baseline to endline were likely due to the intervention.

Reports and Tools

Focusing on Social Norms: A Practical Guide for Nutrition Programmers to Improve Women’s and Children’s Diets

USAID Advancing Nutrition, November 2022
  • Social and Behavior Change and Gender
This guide provides insights on how to identify social and gender norms that influence dietary practices, to improve norm-responsive programming, and to monitor and measure shifts in norms. The guide includes worksheets and a social norms checklist.

Measuring What it Takes to Provide Care: A Toolkit for Nutrition Programs and Research

USAID Advancing Nutrition, December 2022
  • Social and Behavior Change and Gender
This toolkit introduces eight measures of caregiver resources that are relevant to the care of young children and nutrition outcomes. These include mental health, healthy stress levels, perceived physical health, safety and security, equitable gender attitudes, self-efficacy, social support, and time sufficiency.