Public health practitioners increasingly recognize that the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency within populations may not be as large as previously assumed. The Global Burden of Disease Study estimates that thalassemia, hemoglobin deficiency resulting from an inheritable blood disorder, is the second-leading cause of anemia worldwide after iron deficiency. In malaria-endemic countries, other inherited blood disorders are considered important, and their assessment has been incorporated into HIV surveillance systems.

Dietary patterns and environmental conditions, such as altitude and smoke exposure, that influence red blood cell (RBC) synthesis are also important considerations when designing surveillance systems that address different anemia causes. The biological complexities of anemia highlight the need for assessing multiple indicators when diagnosing the causes of anemia in individuals or populations.

We found 12 resource(s)

Operational Guidance on Interventions to Reduce Anemia
Information, Education and Communication Materials published by WHO eLENA in
The below-listed external resources provide important information on relevant health topics related relevant for anemia and its etiologies.
Review of the Evidence Regarding the Use of Antenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Literature Review published by Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences in
This review presents the conclusions of a task force that set out to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes and adverse birth outcomes in low- and middle-income countries; the data from trials comparing multiple-micronutrient supplements that contain iron–folic acid with iron–folic acid supplements alone; the risks of reaching…
Six Key Actions to Reduce Anemia
Toolkit published by SPRING in
This brief describes country-led efforts to coordinate and implement anemia prevention and control, offering lessons learned to help other countries design the best possible solutions.
The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys
Systematic Review published by Nutrients in
This article presents findings from a meta-analysis assessing the proportion of anemia that is attributable to iron deficiency. Data from 23 countries was pooled for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia…
The Global Burden of Anemia
Literature Review published by Hematology/Oncology Clinics in
This article provides a framework for understanding the population-specific epidemiology and pathophysiology of anemia globally. The authors used the systematic approach of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2013 study to elucidate levels and trends of anemia-related disability. The study includes estimates of prevalence and…
The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys
Systematic Review published by Nutrients in
This systematic review presents the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among preschool children and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in 23 countries with a ranking of low, medium, or high in the Human Development Index. Data were pooled and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated…
Maternal Anemia and Risk of Adverse Birth and Health Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
published by American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in
This systematic review assesses the associations between maternal anemia adverse birth and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review synthesizes evidence from 29 studies. Findings indicate that more than 40 percent of women experienced anemia during pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries and that 12 percent of low…
District Assessment Tool for Anemia (DATA)
Toolkit published by SPRING in
The District Assessment Tool for Anemia (DATA) is a generic toolkit that helps districts assess their cur­rent anemia situation. SPRING developed DATA to assist countries in strengthening anemia pro­gramming at the district level.