Dietary quality in low- and middle-income countries is often limited by a lack of dietary diversity, the presence of food insecurity, as well as limited food access and availability. The impact of climate change on crop yields and nutrient composition add to the complexity of this issue. In addition, factors influencing dietary iron intake, including the iron source as well as other dietary factors, are relevant for understanding deficiencies in the diet.
Improving dietary diversity, and the use of traditional food processing techniques, such as fermentation, germination, and dehulling to improve bioavailability, are important dietary considerations for combating micronutrient deficiencies. Although recent evidence on the latter topic is limited, advancement in stable isotope methodology to determine iron bioavailability has made it possible to evaluate how much iron is absorbed from different food preparation methods. The use of enzymes to break down antinutrient factors holds promise for increasing bioavailability of iron and other minerals, but this is unlikely to be commercially available in the foreseeable future.
Future research is expected to shed light on biological pathways through which climate change can influence the dietary supply of iron and to what extent animal-based or in vitro models for iron absorption can be translated into the human context. Randomized controlled clinical trials with large sample sizes will be needed to determine whether and to what extent novel and existing food formulations and recipes can affect the micronutrient status in deficient populations.
Review: Climate Change Impacts on Food Security- Focus on Perennial Cropping Systems and Nutritional Value
Literature Review published by Plant Science in
This review synthesizes evidence on the impact of climate change on fruit and vegetable crops, highlights existing knowledge gaps, and offers approaches to address future challenges using an integrative approach including genomics, phenomics, and future climate models.
Combining the Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Protein, Iron, and Zinc Availability and Projected Climate Change on Global Diets: A Modelling Study
Literature Review published by The Lancet Planetary Health in
This modelling study uses the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade to project per capita availability of protein, iron, and zinc in 2050. Findings indicate that, although technological change, market responses, and the effects of CO2 fertilisation on yield are projected to increase global availability of…
Climate Change Has Likely Already Affected Global Food Production
Journal Article published by PLOS One in
This article presents linear regression relationships using weather and reported crop data to assess the potential impact of observed climate change on the yields of the top ten global crops – barley, cassava, maize, oil palm, rapeseed, rice, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane and wheat at ~20,000 political units. Results indicate that impacts of climate…
The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World: Building Climate Resilience for Food Security and Nutrition
Technical Report published by WFP Saving Lives Changing Lives in
This annual flagship report has been jointly prepared by FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO to inform on progress towards ending hunger, achieving food security and improving nutrition and to provide in-depth analysis on key challenges for achieving this goal in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The report is divided in two…
The Effect of Climate Change across Food Systems: Implications for Nutrition Outcomes
Journal Article published by Global Food Security in
This article uses a food systems approach to analyze the bidirectional relationships between climate change and food and nutrition along the entire food supply chain. It identifies adaptation and mitigation interventions for each step of the food supply chain to move toward a more climate-smart, nutrition-sensitive food system.
Guideline: Use of Multiple Micronutrient Powders for Home Fortification of Foods Consumed by Pregnant Women
Guideline/Guidance published by WHO in
This WHO guideline is intended to help member states make evidence-informed decisions on the appropriate nutrition actions to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women. The guideline is intended for a wide audience, including governments, nongovernmental organizations, health care workers, scientists, and donors involved in the design and…
Food-Based Strategies to Improve Micronutrient Status and Associated Health Outcomes in Young Children from Poor-Resource Households in Low-Income Countries
Literature Review published by FAO in
This review presents diifferent dietary diversification and modification strategies that aim to improve the availability, access and utilization of foods with a high micronutrient content and availability. Presented strategies include: increasing the production and consumption of micronutrient-dense foods through agriculture, small animal…
Household-Level Technologies to Improve the Availability and Preparation of Adequate and Safe Complementary Foods
Literature Review published by Food and Nutrition Bulletin in
This paper describes the biology, safety, practicability, and acceptability of traditional food technologies at the household or community level, and highlights existing research gaps. Traditional household food technologies include dehulling, peeling, soaking, germination, fermentation, and drying. These technologies have been used for centuries…